The Hartmann Neuron was a commercially produced synth that relied on resynthesis as its main synthesis technique. Designed by Axel Hartmann and produced by his company Hartmann Music GmBH, the Neuron was introduced in 2003. Its synthesis method involved loading a sample sound to be analyzed, performing an analysis which built a model of the sound, and then using the model to construct other sounds from raw sources. Unlike traditional resynthesis which relies on Fourier analysis to extract the frequency spectrum from a source sound, the Neuron used a neural-network technique to build a sort of physical model of a hypothetical acoustic device that might produce that sound. The performer could then alter the parameters of the model or apply it to other models to create new sounds.

Unfortunately, the high price of the Neuron ($5000 USD list price) and the difficulty for synthesists of working with an unfamiliar method of synthesis, combined with some teething problems and operating system bugs, limited acceptance at the time. And the otherwise-extensive user interface was hobbled by limited display capability. The Hartmann company ran out of money in 2005, before it could put a less expensive follow-up model into production. The Neuron is now a highly sought after collectors' item.

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