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Sampler

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A synthesizer which has the ability to record and [[digital|digitize]] short lengths ([[sample]]s) of arbitrary sounds, and uses these as its waveform source (as opposed to using oscillators or other waveform-generating circults). A sampler has the ability to [[pitch shifter|pitch-shift]] a recorded sound to correspond to the key played on the keyboard, allowing non-musical sounds such as spoken words, automobile engines, pots and pans, etc., to be played.(The first sample ever recorded on the first sampler was a barking dog.)
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A synthesizer which has the ability to record and [[digital|digitize]] short lengths ([[sample]]s) of arbitrary sounds, and uses these as its waveform source (as opposed to using oscillators or other waveform-generating circults). A sampler has the ability to [[pitch shifter|pitch-shift]] a recorded sound to correspond to the key played on the keyboard, allowing non-musical sounds such as spoken words, automobile engines, pots and pans, etc., to be played.(The first sample ever recorded on the first sampler was a barking dog.) The [[Fairlight CMI]] is known today as the first sampler, but it wasn’t really designed to be a sampler as such; the first synth designed specifically as a sampler was the [[E-mu Systems|E-mu]] [[Emulator]].
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The first samplers had little capability beyond simply recording and playing back sounds. However, modern samplers are usually equipped with most of the same sound-shaping components as other synthesizers -- [[voltage controlled filter|VCFs]], [[voltage controlled amplifier|VCAs]], and so on. Further, an essential component to modern sampling technique is the ability to loop part or all of a sample, in order to create an indefinitely [[sustain]]able tone, or a repeating phrase. Advanced samplers can play loops forwards and backwards, use different parts of the sample for [[attack]], [[sustain]], or [[release]] loops, or apply different processing to different parts of the loops. Other advanced capabilities include the ability to cut, paste, and merge blocks of samples; apply time, [[frequency]], and [[formant]] shifting to samples, and draw or edit waveforms graphically.
 
The first samplers had little capability beyond simply recording and playing back sounds. However, modern samplers are usually equipped with most of the same sound-shaping components as other synthesizers -- [[voltage controlled filter|VCFs]], [[voltage controlled amplifier|VCAs]], and so on. Further, an essential component to modern sampling technique is the ability to loop part or all of a sample, in order to create an indefinitely [[sustain]]able tone, or a repeating phrase. Advanced samplers can play loops forwards and backwards, use different parts of the sample for [[attack]], [[sustain]], or [[release]] loops, or apply different processing to different parts of the loops. Other advanced capabilities include the ability to cut, paste, and merge blocks of samples; apply time, [[frequency]], and [[formant]] shifting to samples, and draw or edit waveforms graphically.
 
==History==
 
The [[Fairlight CMI]] was an early sampling synthesizer, but it wasn’t really designed to be a sampler as such. These early sampling synthesizers used wavetable [[sample-based synthesis]].<ref name="russ">Martin Russ, [https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=X9h5AgAAQBAJ&pg=PA29 ''Sound Synthesis and Sampling'', page 29], [[CRC Press]]</ref>
 
 
Since the 1980s, samplers have been using [[pulse-code modulation]] (PCM) for digital sampling.<ref name="russ"/> The first PCM digital sampler was [[Toshiba]]'s [[wikipedia:ja:LMD-649|LMD-649]],<ref name="rockin">''[[:nl:Rockin'f|Rockin'f]]'', March 1982, [http://tokyosky.sub.jp/tokyosky_webmasters_blog/2011/02/f-19823-lmd-649-1982.html pages 140-141]</ref> created in 1981 by engineer Kenji Murata for Japanese [[electronic music]] band [[Yellow Magic Orchestra]], who used it for extensive [[Sampling (music)|sampling]] and [[Music loop|looping]] in their 1981 album ''[[Technodelic]]''.<ref>[http://www.electricityclub.co.uk/a-beginners-guide-to-yellow-magic-orchestra/ A Beginner’s Guide To YELLOW MAGIC ORCHESTRA], ''The Electricity Club''</ref> The LMD-649 played and recorded PCM samples at 12-bit [[Audio bit depth|audio depth]] and 50&nbsp;kHz [[sampling rate]], stored in 128 [[Kibibyte|KB]] of [[dynamic RAM]].<ref name="rockin"/> The LMD-649 was also used by other Japanese [[synthpop]] artists in the early 1980s, including [[:ja:真鍋ちえみ|Chiemi Manabe]]<ref>[https://www.discogs.com/Chiemi-Manabe-%E4%B8%8D%E6%80%9D%E8%AD%B0%E5%B0%91%E5%A5%B3-/release/4389700 Chiemi Manabe – 不思議・少女], [[Discogs]]</ref> and [[Hideki Matsutake|Logic System]].<ref>[https://www.discogs.com/Logic-System-Orient-Express/release/703523 Logic System – Orient Express], [[Discogs]]</ref>
 
 
An early synth designed specifically as a sampler was the [[E-mu Systems|E-mu]] [[Emulator]].
 
 
==References==
 
{{reflist}}
 
[[Category:Japanese inventions]]
 
 
[[Category:Synth hardware]]
 
[[Category:Synth hardware]]
 
[[Category:Synthesis methods]]
 
[[Category:Synthesis methods]]
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